Page 11 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                       "adapt to technological and market changes, to improve their prospects or to

                       explore their potential" (Wills 1993, 4-2).


                              Conclusions from the three studies previously cited clearly point toward


                       the necessity to identify which skills are needed to be effective in international

                       marketing.  However, these studies also indicate that there is much difference of


                       opinion regarding which international marketing skills are most important.  Using

                       both applied and theoretical expertise, that is a mixture of accomplished


                       international marketers, and academic international marketing experts could

                       provide a sound assessment of the relative importance of international marketing


                       skills.

                              The structure of the field of international marketing has remained


                       basically the same over the past several decades; however, the emphasis given

                       within the literature clearly reveals that international marketing activities have


                       been given disparate breadth and depth of coverage over the years, with distinct

                       clusters of international marketing skills being emphasized sporadically


                       throughout the time period from Borden (1964) up to Smith and Steward (1995).


                       The marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and promotion, as

                       postulated by Neil Borden (1964), were emphasized as the basis for marketing


                       activities for several decades, yet a study completed by Berry (1990) which

                       ranked the importance of marketing mix activities, offered a distinct difference of


                       opinion.  The Berry (1990) study identified customer sensitivity as the most



                                                        © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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