Page 17 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                                                     LITERATURE REVIEW


                              The 1990s have been characterized as a turbulent period with massive

                       corporate downsizing and restructuring (Schwartz 1996).  Internationalization

                       has become a corporate necessity because today businesses "are beginning to

                       realize that the firm that isn’t thinking in terms of international trade should start

                       thinking about going out of business" (Zodl 1995, 3).  From a marketing context,

                       the challenge has been one of "restructuring domestic marketing operations to

                       compete internationally in larger, more disparate markets" (Denison and

                       McDonald 1995, 58).  Appropriate training programs are required to meet the

                       skill needs within a globally competitive environment; many organizations have

                       prioritized employee training efforts and have "placed skill and labour [sic] needs

                       alongside product and service development" (Gibbs, Glendenning, and

                       McCarthy 1995, 4).  Caution must be taken to ensure that training remains

                       appropriate, because "training for training’s sake" offers little potential, and in

                       order for training "to be effective, it must be focused [sic]"  (Denton 1995, 2).

                              The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the skills needed to be

                       effective in international marketing; (2) identify the level of importance of each of

                       these skills; (3) identify the degree to which these skills are present in

                                                       © 1998 Ralph Jagodka                      9
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