Page 18 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                       employees of exporting companies; and (4) describe the gap between the skills

                       these employees have and the skills they need.




                                             The Context for International Marketing

                              There has been dramatic growth in international trade over the last thirty-


                       four years.  In 1960, total United States trade in goods and services was $48.3

                       billion, with a United States trade balance of $3.5 billion.  In contrast, for the


                       calendar year 1994, total United States trade in goods and services was


                       $1,500.9 billion, with a United States trade deficit of $108.1 billion (U.S.

                       Department of Commerce 1995a).  Global trade with the United States has

                       increased by over 3,100 percent over the last thirty-four years.  Competitive


                       forces have truly become global in nature.


                              The first successful internationalization of American business occurred in

                       1868, when Singer Sewing Machine built a factory in Scotland (Ball and


                       McCulloch 1996).  Many companies since then, such as Ford, General Electric

                       and IBM, have had international business operations since their companies


                       began.  "Although internationalization of business is not a new phenomenon . . .

                       the urgency and intensity in the determination to internationalize is relatively


                       new" (Monye 1995, 5).

                              Monye (1995) further states that "one important feature of businesses in


                       the 1980s and 1990s is the increasing focus on internationality in their structure





                                                      © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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