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                       and operation" (5).  Several authors also contend that there is an increasing

                       number of companies, since the 1980s, which are emerging as global marketers

                       (Albaum et al. 1994; Jeannet and Hennessey 1995; Toyne and Walters 1993).

                              According to Cateora (1993), changes in domestic market conditions have

                       pushed many firms into the international arena,

                            Companies with only domestic markets have found it increasingly difficult to
                            sustain customary rates of growth and many are seeking foreign markets to
                            absorb surplus productive capacity.  (7)

                              The relatively large United States domestic marketplace must now be

                       shared with a variety of foreign companies and products.  According to Sletten

                       (1994), as the United States market becomes more competitive, "the need to

                       conduct international operations has been redefined as a [mandatory] cost of

                       doing business" (3).  International marketing activities have intensified in recent

                       years, and abundant literature exists relative to the nature of this evolving field.

                                               The Field of International Marketing

                              The field of international marketing has been related to other fields of

                       study in different ways by various authors.  Evert Gummesson (1996) states

                            Despite the increasing globalization of marketing, marketing thinking and its
                            dissemination is cultivated by cliques through their access to journals,
                            publishers, associations, and conferences.  (3)

                       In its broadest terms, "international marketing is a subset of international

                       business, which is defined as the performance of all business functions across

                                                      © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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