Page 29 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                                             CONSENSUAL VALIDATION OF THE
                                                  INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

                                                    A Review of the Literature

                              An extensive review of the literature was completed relative to

                       determining which skills are needed for effective international marketing.  The

                       literature provided several organizational frameworks which focused on general

                       elements of international marketing: five decision areas for international

                       marketing presented by Jeannet and Hennessey (1995); four dimensions of

                       global marketing according to Quelch and Hoff (1986); twenty-six elements are

                       drawn by Albaum et al. (1994); while fourteen similarly fashioned elements of

                       international marketing are illustrated by Cateora (1993).

                              The literature, however, did not seem to provide any framework focused

                       particularly on skills.  The author used the traditional four Ps of marketing, and

                       added planning, as skill categories: (1) planning and operational skills;

                       (2) pricing skills; (3) product skills; (4) distribution skills (place); and

                       (5) promotion skills.

                              Consensual validation was used as a tool to develop a list of skills

                       needed for effective international marketing.  This process involved identifying

                       independent variables based upon the regularity with which they appeared in the

                                                      © 1998 Ralph Jagodka                      21
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