Page 44 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                       Skill 19.  Ability to Devise
                       International Branding Strategies

                            International branding strategies involve decisions regarding whether or not

                       a product brand name or logo will be uniform across more than one market or

                       country, according to Jeannet and Hennessey (1995).  While complexity is

                       growing, and change breeds unpredictability, an optimal branding strategy is

                       unrealistic; competitive advantage will come from the ability to smoothly evolve

                       branding strategies over time, according to Ladet and Montrelay (1993).  The

                       ability to devise branding strategies for evolving product lines is a vital skill

                       which involves:

                           A disciplined approach to brand development based on meaningful, long-
                           term strategic directions for brands as they relate to the brand and its
                           environment.  A recognition that, while a particular brand's positioning may
                           be relevant and meaningful in the long term in one environment, it may not
                           be so in another, neither now nor in the future; or, for that matter, may have
                           been relevant and meaningful in the long term in one environment for one
                           generation, it may not be so for the next one.  (van Herk 1993, 99)

                                                        Distribution Skills

                       Skill 20.  Ability to Use
                       Appropriate Foreign Market
                       Entry Alternatives

                            The international marketing arena is characterized by "several distinctive

                       entry modes, each offering different benefits and costs to the firm" (Darling 1985,

                       21).  The high degree of global competition has increased the complexity of

                       decision making since "worldwide markets can be served in many ways; for

                                                        © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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