Page 46 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                       Skill 22.  Ability to Balance
                       Between Distribution Efficiency
                       and Distribution Effectiveness

                            With the emergence of just-in-time marketing (JITM), great emphasis is

                       placed on the ability to gear marketing operations to the time requirements of

                       just-in-time production standards of the customer, and "encourage continuous

                       flow rather than stockpiling of inventories" (Lazer et al. 1990, 222).  In fact, it is

                       quite a common occurrence that,

                           Companies are often under-staffed and very short of time; they may well ask
                           suppliers to take on tasks which a few years ago we would have assumed to
                           be the client's responsibility.  So be prepared to accept these extra
                           challenges.  (Kalim 1993, 21)

                            According to Kern, El-Ansary, and Brown (1989), distribution partners are

                       interdependent institutions "involved with the task of moving anything of value

                       from its point of conception, . . . to points of consumption" (12), and each must

                       perform one or more of nine functions; the competitive nature of the distribution

                       channel is dependent upon "how efficiently they can perform the marketing

                       functions" (16).

                                                         Promotion Skills

                       Skill 23.  Select Appropriate
                       Promotional Mix

                            The question of designing an optimal promotional mix requires that "the

                       export/international marketer needs to have guidelines for selecting which

                       activities to use and in which combinations" (Albaum et al. 1994, 371).  The

                                                        © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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