Page 53 - Skills Needed for Effective International Marketing: Training Implications
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                       in international marketing activities.  The rationale for using a stratified group,

                       equal-size population was that sample firms represented an array of sizes, in

                       terms of annual export sales volume.  Additional rationale for use of small and

                       medium-sized businesses was because, according to John Bohn, President of

                       the United States Export-Import Bank, "The future competitiveness of the United

                       States and our success at diminishing the trade deficit depend in large part on

                       the international competitiveness of America’s small and medium-sized

                       businesses" (Ali and Swiercz 1991, 71).

                              To be included in this purposive sample, companies needed to meet

                       selection criteria as follows:

                              1.  Companies must be considered small or medium-sized exporting

                       businesses—they must have had an annual export sales volume of greater than

                       or equal to $500,000 and less than $50 million.  According to Ali and Swiercz

                       (1991), to be considered a small business the firm would have had export sales

                       of less than $5 million, while medium-sized businesses would have had export

                       sales between $5 and $50 million.

                              2.  Companies must be located in the Los Angeles Customs District

                       region.  As rationale for this geographic limitation, the Los Angeles Customs

                       District’s 1994 export activity ($55.8 billion) represented nearly 70 percent of the

                       California total ($81.2 billion), and, according to the California Trade and

                                                      © 1998 Ralph Jagodka
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